INFLAMMATION
      interaction with the environment which consist of micro-organism and potentials body injury is unavoidable in human life. the presence of micro-organisms and potential for bodily injury pose a threat to the state of an individual's health. Natural protection of the body against invasion by organisms and damage by injury Is ensured by the process of inflammation and the immune system. inflammation can therefore be protective in certain circumstances.
 definition- inflammation has been in several ways. but the basic underlying principle of these definitions is that inflammation occurs following the presence if any foreign irritating matter in the body in an attempt to remove or resist this foreign material.
 According to Jones D.A. et.al, inflammation is a protective mechanism exhibited by the tissue in response to an insult that may be if various origin. inflammation is a tissue reaction to injury or irritants.
 causes of inflammation.
 the various agents are responsible for inflammation. they include:
1. chemical:- strong acids and alkalis, irritating gases, poisons, drugs.
2. Biological:- micro-organisms.
3. immunological:- antibody and auto-immune reactions.
4. mechanical:- trauma, pressure.
5. thermal:- Extreme heat or cold
  PATHOPHISIOLOGY
      injury to the tissue involves local and systemic responses. local response consist of vascular response and cellular response. shortly after the injury has occurred there is brief construction of blood vessels which may last for five minutes. this is replaced by dilatation if the vessel occurring within thirty minutes of the injury. the dilatation of the blood vessels account for increased blood supply -(hyperaemia) and increased permeability of the venular and the capillaries. Exudation (escape) of some cells and fluid (plasma) into the tissue occurs. hyperaemia causes redness and heat as seen and felt on the affected part. swelling and fitness are bought about by the accumulation of fluid and cells in the interstitial space. pain occurs due to the pressure of the exudate in nerve endings pain and swelling account for the loss of function of the area. this vascular response is basically mediated by the presence of histamine released by injured or irritated cells.
  there is decrease in the intra vascular volume following the escape of plasma and some blood cells into the tissue. consequently blood flow through the delated vessels is decreased. leucocytes marginate(adhere to the walls of the blood vessels) and move through the capillary wall to the inflammatory site(diapedesis). chemical products within the tissue(products of inflammation, bacterial toxins) attract these luecocytes(chemotaxis) to the site where they engulf and destroy or inactivate the foreign substances through a process called phagocytosis.
  inflammation of bacterial origin often results in abscess formation due to the walling off of the inflamed area. an abscess is a cavity formed as phagocytosis take place and damaged tissue is consumed. pus formation (suppuration) occurs after phagocytic have engulfed and digested bacteria and necrotic tissue. phagotic cells eventually die. pus consists of dead phagocytic cells, partially digested and undigested bacteria and necrotic tissue. enzymes liberated by the dead cells digest the dead debris and accounts for the liquid consistency of pus. the presence of undigested bacteria makes the exudate highly infectious. the pus may be absorbed to the surrounding tissues if the abscess remain encapsulated and content autolyzed. it may rupture and drain into adjoining structures or to the body surface. it may persist in an encapsulated abscess.
    the systemic responses occur especially in inflammatory conditions caused by invasive micro-organisms, which results in bactereraemia or toxaemia. leucocytosis and an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate are main features. when soluble products of tissue reaction diffuse into the blood stream(toxaemia) general body irritation and non-specific responses are manifested. these responses include general malaise, loss of appetite, headache, lethargy, weakness and fever. these symptoms are also referred to as constitutional symptoms.
 clinical manifestations:
A. LOCAL
1. redness seen on the affected area
2. heat felt on the affected area
3. swelling
4. pain
5.loss of function in the affected area
6. pus formation.
B. SYSTEMIC
1. luecocytosis
2. increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESE)
3. general malaise
4. loss of appetite
5. headache
6. fever
7. lethargy
8. weakness.
   the process of healing
   the aim of healing of the inflammatory process is to return the damaged tissue to its normal structure and function. this is accomplished through the process of healing or repair which begins early in the inflammatory process. wound heals by multiplication of connective tissue and formation of a fibrous tissue over which epidermis grows. wound may heal by first intention or by second intention, but the process is similar. the difference is merely the quantity of new tissue required to heal the wound. healing by first intention occurs in incised wounds where the skin edge in close contact, therefore only a thin-line of new tissue is required bring about healing. in gaping wound there is loss of tissue causing a gap between the edges. a mass of new tissue is required to fill those gap.

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